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Evidence Synthesis


Information has value, but it is often difficult to syntehsize a lot of information into a coherent message, especially when it may appear conflicting. We have the experience and expertise to help you make sense of how your data integrates with existing knowledge.

Evidence Synthesis


How should

these data be interpreted?

Evidence Synthesis
Combining analyses from different questions


Asking questions from slightly different perspectives strengthens your decision-making.


Taking an example from the world of sports:


Do more aggressive players have more injuries? If an analysis of aggressive verses non-aggressive players reveals that aggressive players have more injuries, this could lead one to believe that calming exercises would be effective in reducing injury rates.


Aggressive players might have more injuries than non-aggressive players, leading one to believe calming exercises would be effective. But sports requiring different levels of aggression might have different injury risk, independent of a particular player's aggression.


If one wants to assess the potential of a program that decreases aggression, the question might be: Among sports requiring the same general level of aggression, do aggressive players have more injuries than non-aggressive players? 

Placing Analyses in Context of Existing Knowledge


Analyses by themselves can never provide a complete or appropriate picture of an issue. How do the analyses link with knowledge gained from existing research or best practices? For example, in some studies, stretching before exercise prevents injury, in some it increases injury, and in some there is no effect. With such differences, what can we reliably conclude about pre-exercise stretching? Other knowledge informs us that:


  1. Stretching before exercise makes you weaker, similar to weight training.

  2. Stretching temporarily and slightly damages the tissue, similar to weight training.

  3. Stretching decreases pain without increasing the tissue’s capacity to absorb stress, similar to a local anaesthetic.


In the context of existing knowledge, one would not believe that freezing an area or weight training immediately before exercise would prevent injury. Therefore, the existing knowledge supports the overall evidence synthesis that stretching before exercise does not prevent injury. 

Converting evidence into appropriate action


Evidence almost never provides absolute certainty.


All analyses require some assumptions that need to be evaluated.


We provide solutions for informed strategic decision-making that not only listen to the evidence, but also understand its limitations and avoid over-interpretations.

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